Coughing up Coal: Reporting from the Frontline of India's Health Crisis
Champa's eyes are surrounded by dark circles and her face is thin and drawn. It began with a fever, pain in her limbs, and she was then diagnosed with Tuberculosis.

"I was diagnosed with TB two years ago now," she said. "I have been on medication but I am not getting any better. I have difficulty breathing and even talking is hard. It has been five-six  years, ever since the plant started, our problems have started too."

Champa is one of hundreds of thousands of people in India whose health and lives are being blighted by the country's surge in coal-based electrical power generation.

India today ranks third in the world in the production of carbon dioxide and is burning more coal than ever before, with 66% of power generated by coal fired thermal power plants.

Future plans are for expansion, with the 12th five- year plan ending in 2017 adding 76GW of coal-fired power capacity and with the 13th five-year plan (between 2017-2022) adding another 93GW -- an aggressive industrial response to a growing population, a middle class hungry for modernity, and an energy policy that holds coal powered energy as integral to the development of the country's economy.

According to The Lancet's Global Burden of Diseases Study (December 2012), outdoor air pollution -- from power stations, other industry, transport, and domestic fuel burning for heat and cooking -- is among the top 10 causes of death in India. Regulations do exist in India, but are rarely enforced.

"In India we do have ambient air quality standards," said Sarath Guttikunda, chemical engineer and director at Urban Emissions in New Delhi. "But, we have found these regulations lag behind the numbers that we have seen in Europe, United States and even in China, and there is a lot of room for improvement."

In the first ever report focusing on the health impacts of the coal industry in India, scientists estimate that in 2011-2012, air pollution from coal fired power plants alone was responsible for 80,000-115,000 premature deaths. Diseases caused by pollution included 20.9 million asthma attacks, bronchitis and respiratory conditions and cardiovascular disease. These health impacts are estimated to cost India $3.3 billion to $4.6 billion per year in medical expenses and lost work days.

Singrauli - India's "Energy Capital"

Singrauli, known as the "energy capital" of the country, is the industrial hub of north-central India. It produces 10% of the country's coal based power, and straddles the border of the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Priya Pillai, Senior Campaigner for Greenpeace India has worked on the ground in the area for over three years. "There are nine thermal power plants and eleven operational mines, and this is concentrated in one district. That's the Singrauli region. And it's because of this that you'll find the large number of cases of asthma of tuberculosis of skin diseases, of cancer," Pillai explained.

Industrialized Landscape

Singrauli was once covered in forest and rich agricultural land, but the region's coal lies underneath these forests, meaning that they are being cleared at an alarming rate, further threatening endangered species and displacing tribal communities to make way for this energy juggernaut.

The landscape is now one of industrial devastation and critical levels of pollution, recently rated the third most polluted industrial cluster in the country by the comprehensive environmental pollution index. Air, water and soil have all been affected.

The open cast mines that scar the landscape resemble vast craters, streaked black with coal, trimmed green at the edges with what is left of rapidly dwindling forest.  Huge dump trucks and cranes appear like miniatures in the distance, barely visible through the poisonous haze that hangs in the air.

Milky white stagnant ash ponds, hold the by product of the industry, fly ash. Experts warn of acute health problems related to coal and the ash that it produces, which contains toxic heavy metals including mercury, arsenic, lead, nickel, barium and even radioactive substances such as uranium and thorium. Black spiky stalks of dead foliage poke out of the sludge in these ponds, testifying to its toxicity.

Man-made mountains of waste rubble, excavated and dumped, gradually bury villages. Coal-filled train bunkers and conveyor belts, some as long as 25km, snake from mines to thermal power plants, These stacks dominate the skyline, looming over human settlements and pumping out smoke which can reach as far as 400k, choking communities below. The air is permanently clouded, limiting visibility, with the smell and taste of coal dominating the senses. Everything is blanketed in a layer of dust.

Chilika Dand

Chilika Dand, in the Sonebhadra district of Singrauli, Uttar Pradesh, is one of the most critically affected displacement communities, with many people having been moved, often forcibly, numerous times to make way for coal excavation by an industry that is making them sick.

The village of around 12,000 people, is surrounded by multiple power plant stacks emitting putrid smoke. There is a railway line and road both carrying coal and a fully operational open cast mine just 50 meters away. Villagers claim that at night, filters are removed from the stacks, and ash falls and settles on rooftops like toxic snow.

There is a constant industrial hum of engines revving and the scrape of metal on stone. Twice daily explosive blasts, and the subsequent patter and thud of debris are more reminiscent of the sounds of war than of development. Few of the concrete rehabilitation blocks of 30 x 50 feet escape cracked walls due to tremors from the blasts.

Manonit G Ravi, an activist and resident of Chilika Dand shouted over the noise of engines to make himself heard. "The entire village vibrates with the blasts. Sometimes they are so big and loud, people run out of their houses thinking there might be an earthquake."

Sanitation is a big problem, as the allocated plots leave little room for toilets. In summer, asphyxiating dust fills the air, and in winter and rainy seasons, there is a constant septic sludge underfoot. The smell, a mix of human and animal excrement, combined with acrid industrial pollution makes the air gritty, stinging eyes and making breathing a struggle.

Residents of Chilika Dand say that illness and disease is rife in the community, with cancer, kidney failure, diabetes, vitiligo (the blanching of skin through pigment loss), hair loss and psychosis widespread, all linked to contaminated water, coal ash, particles in the air and high levels of mercury present in the environment.

The World Health Organization states that even minimal exposure to mercury may cause health problems, including neurological damage to unborn fetuses and children, and is considered "one of the top ten chemicals or groups of chemicals of major public health concern." Coal fired power stations are sited as one of the main ways that mercury is released into the environment.

Siraj Un Nissa, a resident of Chilika Dand and mother of eight has Vitiligo. Her hands, arms and mouth are blanched, and her whole body is patchy where pigment has been lost. "I have been sick for the past eight years," she said. "The dust is making it hard for us to live here. No electricity. We get it for one hour and it's gone. We don't have a proper house to live in, just a make-shift shelter. We don't have anything. No one cares about the poor."


Jharia, in neighbouring Madhya Pradesh, has almost disappeared. The remote village is being buried under waste from a nearby mine opened in 2006. A thin sliver of green and only around 30% of its population is all that remains of this forest dwelling community of Harijan people, squashed against a sheer, slowly encroaching, man made cliff of debris.

Bandhu Saket, resident of Jharia explained how their health has been affected by the mine."My youngest grandson gets so unwell, his teeth start chattering and his eyes enlarge, it feels like he will not get better," he said. "It never used to be like this. Ever since the companies have come, since the vehicles have been driving back and forth, since the blasting has started, illness and disease have been spreading.  They dump things in all directions and when it is summertime, with all the dust, one cannot see anything so how can you expect anything else but to get sick!"

There was once a well that provided drinking water to the village, but the company filled it in. Now Bandhu Saket said they are forced to drink "whatever we find in the drains or irainwater collected."

Manbasia, also from Jharia, is a mother of three. Supporting herself against a huge rock from the mine, she struggled to control the emotion in her voice, and spoke shakily of illness and disease in what is left of her community.  "I can't see very well, my chest hurts, my feet don't allow me to sit down or stand up," she said. "We have no one here to help or support us. If someone is dying, there is no one to look after them or save them. Who are we meant to turn to?"

Dr. R.B. Singh

Dr. R.B. Singh worked in the area for over 20 years, treating the local population in their homes, in the small private practice that adjoins his home, and the Singrauli District Hospital next door. He attributes the huge increase in death, sickness and disease to the growth of the industry in the region.

"Since the time the new industries have come here and the coal mine belt has progressed," he said. "The patients we see in our new Out Patients Department present themselves with skin diseases and lung diseases, bronchitis, asthma and silicosis, and because of the contaminated drinking water, amoebiasis and other abdominal ailments, which have increased. I have come across bone cancer, mouth cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer. In children, bone cancer -- and in middle aged people, mouth cancer -- these are common here."

There is a constant stream of patients outside Dr Singh's private practice, all needing attention and treatment. The District Hospital next door to his practice is in desperate need of facilities. A dilapidated shell with dark corridors, a blood splattered maternity ward and rainwater coming through gaps in the ceiling. Wards are crowded but very quiet, with beds full, people lying on the floor and a distinct absence of staff.

"We have a problem with a lack of doctors as most of them qualify and go abroad. They do not want to work in these small places," said Dr. Singh.

Sarath Guttikunda, Director at Urban Emissions, New Delhi is a chemical engineer and air pollution expert. "When you are focusing on outdoor air pollution two things which are really important, one is your lungs, and other one is your heart. Among the respiratory problems, the main one is the asthma," he said. "People who are already suffering from asthma are obviously going to get affected even more, and children and older generation people, they are the ones that we see are getting affected the most."
Gaiman Prasad Kanojiya, a school teacher in Lojhara village, said that sickness is rife in his students, with coughing and sneezing a constant sound in the classroom. Absenteeism is common due to ill health, and parents are deeply worried about their children.

"When I go to teach, there are 216 children," he said. "Out of those, if only 100 or 150 of them turn up, it makes us wonder why the children haven't turned up. When we inquire, the child's guardian tells us that their child has been unwell or that because we had to go to the hospital, they didn't make it to school, or that for the past 15 days she's been sick and lying in bed. These kind of problems come up a lot."

Broken Promises

All over Singrauli, locals speak of sickness, their land and livelihoods being taken away, and promises of rehousing, education, employment and healthcare from industry that haven't materialized.

Rangeet Gupta is a local activist and youth worker living and working in the area. He said that after "persistent reminding" industry still has not delivered the services that it promised. That means that proper healthcare, among other things, remains available only to people who can afford it, or those who work for the industry.

"In this area of ours, there isn't even a decent hospital for the displaced community, they have nothing at all, no schools, no doctors, no hospital, no roads, not even an arrangement for hygiene and sanitation. They have just been abandoned," said Gupta.

Champa, like so many others, experienced this first hand, buying her own medicine when she has the money to do so, and going without treatment when she can't afford it.

"We receive no help from the people at the plant at all. Since the health problems started because of the plant, we have not been given so much as a single tablet by them or the government."

As the health situation gets more critical, scientists, medical professionals and environmental campaigners all predict that if India pushes forward with the planned expansion of coal-fired power generation and regulations remain unenforced, the consequences to human life will be even more devastating.

"The calculations that we have done for the current number of power plants, we have seen close too 100,000 premature deaths, and if we are going to triple the number of power plants and don't do anything about the regulations, we will at least triple this number, and looking at health impacts of the air pollutions in the range of 300,000 premature deaths," said Sarath Guttikunda.

Doctor Singh warned that the atmosphere in Singrauli will be polluted "to such a degree that it will not be viable to live here any more." Champa, Manbasia and their families, along with hundreds of thousands of other people, face a future of poverty, sickness and death with no means of escape.  Manbasia reflected, "Now, with the dust and smoke bellowing, there are people getting sick. And if you don't have the money like us, what do we do? Kill ourselves?"

Sarah Stirk is a journalist and filmmaker with The Ecologist Film Unit in the United Kingdom.

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Fukushima: Four Tons of Radioactive Rainwater Leaks from Stricken Nuclear Plant
FukushimaThere's yet another problem at Japan's stricken Fukushima nuclear reactors. The operators of the reactors reported earlier this week that four tons of radioactive rainwater has leaked from the plant. Japan's public broadcaster, NHK, reported on the story.


An official with plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Company says crews were pumping up pools of contaminated rain water. A tropical storm passed over the complex last month. Rain built up around tanks used to store contaminated water. The crews may have transferred it to the wrong tank leading to an overflow. Workers measured the radiation levels inside the tank after the leak. It was 13 times higher than the government safety limit for releasing tainted water into the ocean. For some reason the level of radiation has doubled since measurements taken just after the storm. Plant managers are looking into what caused the spike.


And, Japanese and American scientists are trying to work together to find out how much radiation seeped into the Pacific Ocean since the disaster at Fukushima 31 months ago. The American side says it's found low levels of the radioactive cesium in Bluefin tuna caught off the US coast. NHK has a report.


Professor Hideo Yamazaki of Kinki University has been studying marine creatures in the waters off Fukushima Prefecture.

Hideo Yamazaki:
We estimated concentration levels to be so low, they wouldn't be detectable in the US, But the fact that they found contaminated fish off the coast of the US really shocked us, even if the figures are extremely low.

Yamazaki says the level of contamination doesn't pose a threat to human health. But he says he wants to share his data with the US researchers to figure out how the tuna picked up the radioactive material. Yamazaki says it takes time for tuna to accumulate radioactive substances since they're at the top of the marine food chain. Tiny creatures such and plankton absorb radioactive substances first. Small fish then eat the plankton. Then big fish like tuna eat the smaller ones. Recent studies show Bluefin tuna spend their juvenile period in Japan's coastal water. The fish take one to four months to migrate across the Pacific to the US West Coast. Yamazaki says he thinks he can figure out how and where the Bluefin tuna accumulate radioactivity by studying fish on both sides of the ocean. He asked US researchers to collaborate with his team.

Hideo Yamazaki:
Japan needs to work with people from different sides to gather and assess the same kind of data. We need to provide the public with reliable information.

Researchers from Stanford University sent last April twenty three-gram slices of Bluefin tuna to Japan. But customs agents at Kansai International Airport stopped them. They said proper documentation was missing. But the US government does not issue such paperwork for research purposes. So the samples are still at the airport, frozen, six months on.

Hideo Yamazaki:
This is an urgent situation. We need customs officials to understand just how critical this is and facilitate the timely transportation of materials that need to be studied.

Scientists in the US and Japan are calling for international cooperation and flexibility, so they can better study the effects of the nuclear accident.

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Japanese Cosmetic Company Takes Heat for Skin Damage Claims
A popular Japanese cosmetic company is scrambling to save face. More than 8,000 users of Kanebo Cosmetics skin whitening creams and lotions have reported serious skin damage after using its products. Japan's public broadcaster NHK digs deeper into this scandal with this report.


People have seen the ads. Products that promise to make the skin on their faces whiter. Some believe that will hide any flaws. But now they're finding out that cosmetics are not safe.

Woman 1:
I wonder if the products were thoroughly tested.

Woman 2:
I do whitening because I worry about blemishes. But when things like this happen, it makes me think twice about buying another product from the company.

Kanebo was founded in 1887. It grew into one of the Japan's leading cosmetic companies. In 2008, the company started selling products to whiten the skin on people's faces. Customers in 11 other countries and territories started buying them up. Then, two years ago, managers started hearing some complaints. More than six thousand customers have contacted the company since the beginning of this month. More than two thousand complained the product left their skin with blotches.

Masumi Natsusaka:
We will continue to take action until every affected customer is completely cured. It's our responsibility to know the customers' present conditions and come up with measures to deal with their problems as soon as possible.

Company executives said they can't confirm whether their products cause the problems. But, they're looking into an ingredient called rhododenol. Company scientists developed the substance, and got it cleared in testing required by law. The executives admit they should have taken a measure earlier to prevent any further damage. This month, they started recalling 450,000 units. They believe about 90,000 are still out there. And now they are considering offering customers some compensation to pay for any medical expenses. The case is a major blow for the people who run Kanebo. They're still trying to figure out what the impact will be but customers are already shying away from Kanebo cosmetics.


It's been two years since Japan's triple disaster -- the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear meltdown at Fukushima, but recovery efforts are far from being over. Japanese broadcaster NHK filed this report on the slow recovery.


Crews have focused their decontamination efforts based on levels of radiation. The government is responsible for cleaning up the evacuation zone around the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant. And it's subsidizing work in other areas. Government officials have allocated about 11 billion dollars. But they haven't said what the total cost might be. Experts from a science and technology institute carried out a study. They estimated cleaning up the evacuation zone alone would cost 20 billion dollars. They say, work in other areas would add up to more than 30 billion.

Junko Nakanishi:
The government should study the cost before deciding whether to complete decontamination or reallocating the money to help people rebuild their lives.

Nakanishi says government officials are overseeing the work without considering the expectations of residents.

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'Large Amounts of Radioactive Substances' Remain in Japan's Environment
NHK RadiationConcerns over radiation exposure and an increase in cancer rates following Japan's nuclear disaster in 2011 led to immediate evacuations of towns surrounding the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant. For the past two years residents have been closely monitored, and those efforts seem to have paid off. This week, a group of UN scientists reported that radiation leaked after the 2011 Fukushima disaster is unlikely to cause any health effects in the future. But that doesn't mean people can go home. The Japanese government says there's still a lot of contamination in the water and soil. This past week, Japan's public broadcaster, NHK, took a look at the report and what it means for local residents. The transcript of that piece is below.


This year’s report was approved at a cabinet meeting on Tuesday. It prioritizes reconstruction from the March 11th quake and tsunami, and the nuclear accident they triggered. The report says large amounts of radioactive substances remain in the environment more than two years after the accident. It calls decontamination of the affected areas a pressing issue, and it admits that government efforts have so far failed to dispel fears over possible low dosage exposure.

The report stops short of discussing nuclear power generation as a way to tackle global warming. Before the 2011 accident, the government used a report to promote the use of nuclear energy.

Nobuteru Ishihara, Japanese Environment Minister:
We hope more people will consider how to hand over a truly prosperous society to future generations.

The report also says values appear to be changing in Japan since the disaster, and that the country should shift away from assessing wealth only through GDP figures.

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Japan: Nuclear Disaster Fallout Still Felt in Power Industry
FukushimaAs Japan's citizens prepare for the next disaster, the fallout from the last one continues to influence Japan's nuclear power industry. The operators of four power plants want permission to restart their reactors in July. The units have been kept offline because of the accident at Fukushima-Daiichi. On May 28th, Japan's public broadcaster NHK reported on the latest in the struggle over Japanese nuclear power.


Officials at Kansai Electric power Company and Kyushu Electric Power Company say they want to restart two reactors each. Executives with Hokkaido Electric Power Company say they hope to bring three back online. And those with Chikoko Electric Power Company are planning to restart one.

Makoto Yagi:
We hope to restart reactors as soon as their safety is confirmed.

Operators will be required to introduce tougher measures against accidents and natural disasters. They have to study the potential height of tsunami and the possibility of a volcanic eruption. And they'll have to present safety measures to deal with the risks. Officials from the nuclear regulation authority will study their applications and decide whether to permit any restarts. All but two of Japan's reactors are offline following the accident in Fukushima.


Of the 50 commercial reactors in Japan, only two are currently online amid safety concerns after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi plant disaster.

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The Naked Truth About Nuclear Accident Insurance

Going without insurance is described as "going naked" in insurance industry lingo. Going without insurance for the worst hazards in the nuclear power industry is business as usual.

One need not look back very far to see the problem. In March 2011, the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster, triggered by an earthquake followed by a tsunami that overwhelmed all of Japan's safeguards, melted down three reactors, displaced 160,000 people and caused an estimated $250 billion in damages and other still-unfolding economic consequences.

Naked AmericaToday, in the United States, we have 104 operating nuclear plants producing electricity. The owners, operators, and government regulators who oversee them say an event like Fukushima will not happen here. And even if it did, they insist, there is enough liability insurance in place to cover the damages. The actual amount of that insurance coverage: just $12.6 billion.

You don't need an advanced degree in calculus or risk analysis to see that something doesn't add up, and to start feeling a bit...naked. But when it comes to nuclear insurance, naked is the fashion designed for the American public.

A catastrophic accident in the US could cost way more than $12.6 billion. A worst-case scenario study in 1997 by the Brookhaven National Laboratory estimated that a major accident could cost $566 billion in damages and cause 143,000 possible deaths. Another such study, by Sandia National Laboratories in 1982, calculated the possible costs at $314 billion. Adjusted for inflation, that would put both estimates close to the trillion dollar range today. So $12.6 billion wouldn't cover much.

After Fukushima, which was only the second worst such accident behind the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown in the former Soviet Union, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its staff scrambled to reappraise the adequacy of their own safety regimens for nuclear power plants. And they re-examined the sufficiency of the limited insurance available to indemnify the American people against property damage, loss of life and other economic consequences of nuclear accidents. Then the NRC hastened to publish the "lessons learned" from the Japanese catastrophe to show they were on top of things. Though the previously existing US system had been described as virtually fail-safe, federal regulators found that improvements were possible after all and ordered that they be made. 

But one not so small thing remained unchanged, post-Fukushima: the tightly capped insurance system. Of course, raising the amount of insurance required to operate nuclear plants would be expensive. The nuclear industry, which provides 20 percent of all of the country's electrical power, is not eager to incur additional expenses like higher insurance premiums for more coverage. Oh, but the nuclear power industry doesn't actually pay premiums on most of the insurance coverage that supposedly is available (more about that later.) 

Three Mile IslandFirst, a little history. After solving the scientific and technological issues of splitting the atom, the biggest problem the nuclear industry faced in its infancy was obtaining accident insurance coverage. Without insurance, investors were unwilling to provide start-up capital. But the insurance industry was nervous. After all, this was back in the 1950s, and who knew then how safe -- or dangerous -- this new power source might turn out to be? So insurers were refusing to assume unlimited levels of liability.

But President Dwight D. Eisenhower was determined to develop "Atoms for Peace," and he worked with a cooperative Congress to remove all roadblocks. Their solution to the insurance obstacle was a new federal law, the Price-Anderson Act of 1957, which simply imposed federally-decreed limits on liability from accidents at non-military nuclear facilities. The law, amended several times since then, allowed the creation of insurance pools to cover accidents. Today the plan has two tiers. The first tier is a $375 million insurance policy for which each nuclear plant must pay premiums ranging between $500,000 and $2 million a year, depending on plant size and other factors. If a plant has an accident and $375 million is not sufficient to cover resulting damages the second tier kicks in and all the other plant operators around the country must chip in up to $111 million each to indemnify victims until the $12.6 billion cap is reached.

By the way, if you live near a nuclear plant, or even many miles away, you cannot buy your own private insurance policy to protect your home against nuclear accidents, thanks to the Price-Anderson law.

The nuclear industry and the insurance industry both understood the hard realities of the risk. In testimony to the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee on May 24, 2001, John L. Quattrocchi, then senior vice president for underwriting at the American Nuclear Insurers pool, put it bluntly: "The simple fact is there is always a limit on liability -- that limit equal to the assets of the company at fault." 
Meanwhile, corporations that own nuclear plants have devised spin-off schemes, erecting legal firewalls to protect the parent company if their limited-liability subsidiary actually operating the plant goes under as the result of an accident. US Nuclear Reactor

Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear power plant suffered a partial meltdown in March, 1979. Victor Gilinsky was the senior sitting member on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission when that accident happened. According to Gilinsky, now retired, "There is no insurance for an extreme event."   
Now, as scientists warn of climate change, rising sea levels, stronger hurricanes and a host of other environmental threats related to global warming it might not be unreasonable to re-examine protections afforded the public. Small-scale accidents at nuclear plants continue to happen. A big one, like Fukushima or worse, may have a low probability level. But it isn't impossible. 

True, nuclear plants contribute little or no greenhouse gas emissions to the overburdened atmosphere compared to the coal-fired plants that add so much to global warming. But there is another factor to consider when weighing the nuclear option. Originally licensed for 40 years of operational life, most US nuclear plants are approaching or have already exceeded that period. So far, 73 such plants have been given 20-year extensions, and with retrofitting and extensive upgrades, some are expected to function to an age of 80 years.  Lets all keep our fingers crossed.




Miles Benson is a correspondent for Link TV's Earth Focus. He has a distinguished career as a daily print journalist. From 1969 till his retirement in 2005, was a correspondent for the Newhouse Newspaper group, which included 30 daily newspapers. He covered the US Congress for 15 years and then the White House for 16 years, wrote a weekly political column and covered national politics and public policy.


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Radioactive Water Leaks Found at Fukushima Nuclear Plant
(LinkAsia: April 12, 2013)
Thuy Vu:
More bad news for Japan's nuclear energy industry. Radioactive water is leaking out of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, and crews are rushing to contain it before it spills into the ocean. For more on the story, here's NHK.


Airdate: April 9, 2013

This plant has sprung leaks, and lots of them. Water is seeping in from underground through walls damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. Once inside it's contaminated, so workers are forming a seemingly dangerous task removing the water to temporary storage tanks and underground pools.

Masayuki Ono:
There have been leaks since a state of cold shutdown was achieved, but the recent case is probably the largest ever.

The pools sit about 800 meters from the shore. But Ono says there's no fear that the water leaked directly into the ocean. TEPCO investigators suspect the problem rides with the design and construction of storage facilities. Each pool is six meters deep. Three layers of water proof sheets cover the sides and bottom. Crews poked a hole in the sheets so that they could insert a sensor to monitor any leakage. Spokespersons say the holes themselves became the problem. The water pressure pulled the sheets down and widened the holes, allowing the water to leak out. Trade and industry minister, Toshimitsu Motegi asked the TEPCO president Naomi Hirose, to fix the problem.

Toshimitsu Motegi:
I would like you to make sure that contaminated water won't leak into the sea.

The assurances from TEPCO have not calmed residents.

Fusayaki Nanbu:
The leaks should never have happened in the first place. Regardless of whether or not the water has reached the ocean. TEPCO should deal with the matter more seriously.

Crews face another challenge too. They are running out of space. They've been filling up the seven pools and hundreds of tanks. But the tanks are nearly full. And now, the integrity of the pools is in question. So the people who run the plant are searching for somewhere else to put water that just keeps on coming.

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A Gas Boom, a Farm Bust in Pennsylvania

When Sheila Russell decided to move back to her ancestral home in Bradford County, Pennsylvania, she wanted to start a new life. A seventh-generation Russell, whose family had settled the land in 1796, the last year of George Washington’s presidency, she left her corporate job at a catalog company to do what she loved best: farming.

There was only one problem: shale gas. As luck would have it, the Russell farm happened to sit on top of the Marcellus shale, a large underground formation rich in natural gas. In 2010, just as Ms. Russell was embarking on her new career in organic farming, Chesapeake Energy drilled two shale-gas wells across the road, less a thousand feet from the farm.

Although not worried at first and even hopeful that future royalties from the gas may help her expand her business, Ms. Russell soon found herself in a nightmare, when she discovered that one of the wells on her property had been leaking methane gas into the ground, due to a faulty casing, for over a year.

Today, Sheila Russell has stopped drinking the water from her private well and even refuses to water her produce with it, preferring instead a nearby spring-fed pond. Water tests have shown elevated levels of methane and metals, still within state norms, but she does not want to take any chances.

"It's a concern for me, it's a concern for my customers," she says. "We all thought [the gas] was a lot of money coming and that it was safe. And it’s neither safe, nor a money-maker. Do I stay on this seventh-generation farm and keep it going? I don’t know."

Sheila Russell's case is hardly an exception. Bradford County, a bucolic region in northern Pennsylvania full of woodlands, rolling hills, and pastures dotted by red barns and hay bales, with a population of just 63,000 people, has been undergoing a massive industrial transformation for the past few years, as both American and international companies have joined the rush for gas.

This is not the first natural-resource boom in Bradford County. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, coal mining and logging were big economic drivers -- until the coal ran out and the hills were hills were stripped bare -- but the shale gas may prove to be the biggest industry yet.

About 2,000 shale-gas wells have been drilled and permitted in the county so far, making it the most heavily drilled region in Pennsylvania and the Marcellus as a whole. And while the economic benefits for companies, larger leaseholders, and some local businesses have been significant, the gas rush threatens to undermine the venerable farming and dairy operations in the area, while creating a host of environmental and social problems.

The changes are hard to ignore. From a sleepy Pennsylvania town on the banks of the Susquehanna River, Towanda, the county's seat, has metamorphosed into a real boomtown, with industry trucks and large pickups jamming the single main street. Crime has gone up by about 40 percent, while rents and food prices have skyrocketed.

Meanwhile, new restaurants and hotels have sprung up along the river valley to service the rig and pipeline workers, many of them coming here from as far as Texas, Oklahoma, and Mississippi.

Since 2008, when drilling for shale gas began in the county, revenues from sales tax have jumped up 61 percent, while unemployment has hovered at around six percent, lower than the national average. So far, local landowners have received $160 million in leases, which have boosted spending, as well as the county's tax base.

"The shale gas industry has had a very positive economic impact on the region" says Anthony Ventello, the executive director of Progress Authority, the local chamber of commerce, pointing out that the gas industry continues to bring in new investments. A new 800 MW gas-fired power plant, worth between 600 and 800 million dollars, has been already planned, while other, smaller gas-related projects are soon to follow.

"We're looking to create a value-added economy and not just ship natural gas out of here like a third-world country," he says.


Yet, behind the upbeat statistics, a darker side lurks. Blowouts, toxic spills, water contamination, and gas migration have accompanied development.

Chesapeake Energy, the company with the most substantial presence, was fined $900,000 -- the largest environmental fine in the state’s history -- for allowing gas migration to contaminate the water of 16 families in the county in 2010. Later, a blowout of one of the company’s wells caused large amounts of "produced water" -- liquid waste associated with shale gas extraction -- to spill into Towanda creek. In Bradford County, according to the Department of Environmental Protection, overall there have been more than 600 violations so far.

Most often, accidents occur due to faulty casing and cementing, with gas and a variety of dangerous metals migrating into the water table. The industry calculates that six percent of all new wells have some kind of casing or cementing problem, but in reality that percentage could be much higher.

Carol French, a long-time dairy farmer, experienced the adverse consequences of shale-gas drilling first hand, when her well water turned white and murky in 2011. Soon, her whole family started having skin rashes, while her 24-year old daughter fell extremely ill with intestinal, liver and spleen problems (she quickly improved when she moved away from the farm). Meanwhile, the family's cattle began suffering from skin rashes and breeding issues.

"I got to see my farm lose 90 percent of its property value," she says. “I’m losing my milk market and probably I won’t be able to sell my cows. The gas industry had negatively impacted our health, our water, our business, our society."

Mrs. French has made the conscious decision to keep her dairy operation going, despite the fact that there are about 340 shale-gas wells within a ten-mile radius of her farm. Many of her neighbors, on the other hand, have simply opted to take the money from their gas leases and sell their dairy herds. Out of about 12 dairy farmers in the immediate vicinity, only three have kept their farms running, according to Mrs. French's estimates. Even the local milk hauler has gone on to work as a truck driver for the shale-gas industry.

Another serious impact has been the fragmentation of farmland by the wells pads, compressor stations, and the thousands of miles of pipelines already crisscrossing the hills or currently under construction.

Certainly, there are other factors contributing to the decline of dairy farms in Bradford County, beyond the gas industry. Low milk prices and expensive feed have kept the business on the edge of survival for years and many have seen the windfall from gas leases and royalties as the perfect exit.

The choice was clear for Howard Keir, a neighbor of Carol French. After leasing the mineral rights of his property to Chesapeake Energy, he immediately sold off his dairy herd. He believes shale-gas extraction is generally safe and today has three wells on his property, out of which he soon expects to receive royalties.

"With the price of milk going mostly down, farmers were going out of business anyway, so you can’t blame it all on the industry," he says.

Anthony Ventello, of the chamber of commerce, agrees. "Don’t get me wrong, but farming is doomed, no matter what you do. It has to do with milk prices mostly. Yes, things will change, but I don’t see that as a danger."

Anecdotal evidence suggests that some farmers use the proceeds from gas exploration to upgrade their operations, but the general trend has been in the opposite direction.

A 2012 study by Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences draws a direct correlation between the decline of cow numbers and dairy production in areas with higher drilling activity. Between 2007 and 2010, in counties with 150 or more gas wells cow numbers have decreased by 18.7 percent on average, compared to only 1.2 percent decrease in counties with no Marcellus wells. In Bradford County the decline has been 18.8 percent for that time period.

Timothy Kelsey, professor of agricultural economics and a co-author of the study, sees a danger for the entire dairy industry in the region if the decline continues.

"If the number of farms and agricultural activity fall too low, these essential supporting businesses [like feed stores, large animal veterinarians, machinery dealers, and agricultural processors] will leave or quit, making it difficult for remaining farmers to access needed inputs and markets and thus remain in business," he writes.

If such domino effect takes place and farming and dairy production in Bradford County collapse along with the entire supply chain, even the large financial inflow from the shale gas industry might not be able to make up for the difference.

A law that came into effect last year in Pennsylvania, Act 13, tries to mitigate some of the negative effects of shale gas drilling by providing an impact fee. In 2012, Bradford County received $8.2 million with another $6.8 million projected for 2013.

"It's a chunk of change that Bradford County never had before," says Mark Smith, one of the county commissioners. "Is it enough? I don't think we know that answer yet."

Without a doubt shale gas has made a serious contribution to the economy of Bradford County and Pennsylvania as a whole, yet risking a sustainable industry like farming for an unsustainable one like fossil-fuel extraction may prove too expensive in the end.

Already a bust is on the horizon: drilling in the county has seen a substantial decline, from 408 shale-gas wells drilled in 2011 to 149 well through November of 2012, due to low gas prices. The construction of thousands of miles of pipeline continues in preparation for the new boom when prices pick up, but it is far from certain whether farming in the area could recover so easily.

"The story is always different at the kitchen table where they come to sign you on than it is out in the field," says Bruce Kennedy, a long-time farmer whose family roots in Pennsylvania go back 200 years. In 2011, three accidents related to shale gas extraction happened on his property, including a large diesel spill.

"My grandfather always taught me to leave a place better than you found it. I don’t mind people going after the gas, but it doesn't entitle them to abuse the place. You have to be a good steward of the land."


Reporting for this article was funded by the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting and Calkins Media. Dimiter Kenarov is a freelance journalist based in Istanbul, Turkey. To learn more about the impacts of fracking, visit Link TV's ISSUE: Fracking page.


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Here in Youngstown: The Promise and Curse of Shale Gas
There was a saying in Youngstown that the day you didn't have to sweep soot off your porch was the day that spelled trouble. That was more than thirty-five years ago, when the city, nestled in Ohio’s Mahoning Valley, was one of the great steel manufacturers in the United States – "the Ruhr Valley of America" – with dozens of foundries, their smokestacks belching black plumes into a black sky.

Then the soot gradually disappeared, but so did the jobs, as automation and cheap imports drove the industry away. The steel mills shut down, one by one, like the organs of a dying patient. By the end, more than 50,000 people lost their employment and the city's population shrank by nearly 65 percent, to just over 60,000.

Today, brownfields and empty factories litter the landscape and ghostly, boarded-up houses haunt the neighborhoods. Tattered American flags flutter from skeletal poles. Junkies roam the streets listlessly. If the Rust Belt had a buckle, it would be right here. 

But the world is changing, and so is Youngstown. The shale gas boom in the Marcellus formation of neighboring Pennsylvania has lifted up hopes in the city– while raising fears of new industrial-scale pollution.

A slick 650-million dollar plant with 350 employees, V&M Star, making steel tubes for the gas industry, opened last October to great fanfare, where once stood the Brier Hill Works of Youngstown Sheet & Tube. A few smaller steel shops have also made a comeback, while restaurants and motels are getting busier, according to interview with owners.

"The shale gas could be a game changer, but I think in truth it's a very strong diversifier of our regional economy," says Eric Planey, vice president of the International Business Attraction, Youngstown’s chamber of commerce. "It's almost like a steroid for the economy."

Drilling for shale gas, too, has recently made its entrance into the Mahoning Valley, as the local Utica Shale has proven rich in profitable "wet gas," saturated with natural gas liquids like propane, butane and ethane. So far, there are just a few shale gas wells in the county area – overall, 196 have been drilled in Ohio and 477 have been permitted – but many more are in the planning stages. Like smokestacks turned upside down, the boreholes seem to promise a new industrial revival for Youngstown.

In truth, for the past several years the city has been attempting to reinvent itself as a high-tech hub for software startups, but success has so far been limited. General Motors remains the largest employer in the area and blue-collar jobs are the most popular.

"Shale gas could really turn our economy around and produce jobs in the future," Charles Sammarone, the mayor of Youngstown, says.

The city council recently approved an ordinance to allow the lease of the mineral rights of 180 acres of city-owned land. The potential revenue, the mayor hopes, could fund the demolition of abandoned houses and buildings, and give Youngstown a facelift. A 2010 survey by the Mahoning Valley Organizing Collaborative showed that there are 3,246 vacant structures within the city limits, or about 44.8 structures per 1,000 residents, a figure 20 times the national average.

At the same time, unemployment has been kept relatively low at 7.9 percent, the national average, but only because so many people have been leaving the area.

"We want to clean up our neighborhoods, so we can keep people from moving out," Sammarone says.

Patching and cleaning up Youngstown with shale gas, though, may prove its own ironic pitfall. Shale gas harvesting requires an invasive technique called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, whereby millions of gallons of frack fluid – a mixture of water, sand and chemicals, some of them toxic – are injected in the ground under high pressure to crack the impermeable rock and release the trapped hydrocarbons.

Much of that mixture then comes back as "produced water" or "brine," laced underground with high concentrations of salts, a variety of heavy metals, and naturally occurring radioactivity, making it very difficult for treatment or disposal.

"All oil and gas production brings certain risks of contamination to ground and surface water, [but] through appropriate oversight, training, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations, spills can be greatly minimized," says Jeffrey Dick, director of Youngstown’s Natural Gas and Water Research Institute.

However, cases of groundwater contamination and gas migration into aquifers due to faulty casings, as well as blowouts and spills have been quite common and well documented in Pennsylvania, right across the state border. Between January 2008 and August 2011, Pennsylvania's Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) recorded 2,988 violations related to shale gas extraction, 1,144 of which involved environmental threats or substantial environmental damage.

Chesapeake Energy, the second largest producer of natural gas in the United States, was fined last year $900,000, the biggest environmental fine in Pennsylvania's history, for allowing gas to contaminate private water wells in Bradford County. In 2009, another company, Cabot Oil & Gas received a fine of over $500,000 for similar violations in Dimock, Pennsylvania.

Industry statics indicate that six percent of cement casings in new wells fail and leak gas and liquid contaminants in the environment, while that percentage climbs precipitously to 50 after the first 30 years of exploitation.

"The gas industry could revitalize the town, but you can't also look the other way. The rivers have been polluted, the land has been polluted by the steel industry, and they left us pretty much in shambles," says Robert Hagan, an Ohio state representative and a Youngstown native, who had worked as a locomotive engineer for decades, ferrying steel products across the region. "You have to think very clearly about what could happen with the shale gas and oil industry... so we don't repeat the same mistakes that we've done in the past."

Although there is no substantial drilling in the area yet, with just over a dozen wells in various stages of development, Youngstown has already felt the shockwaves, literally. With no previous history of major seismicity, the city experienced 12 earthquakes in 2011, the strongest one a 4.0 on the Richter scale.

A preliminary report by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) linked the tremors to a deep injection well, Northstar 1, used for the disposal of brine from Pennsylvania's shale gas industry. Located right across the new V&M Star pipe plant, on the opposite bank of the Mahoning River, the well was a reminder of the other, dirtier end-product of fossil-fuel extraction.

"Everybody is saying how great the new jobs are but they're being willfully ignorant about the whole big picture," says Raymond Beiersdorfer, a professor of geology at Youngstown State University, who used to work in oil exploration. "You can't have a sustainable environment when you're developing shale gas in such a polluting manner. There are problems all through the whole chain of the process."

Northstar 1 was eventually shut down and ODNR implemented stricter rules for waste disposal in all the 192 deep injection wells in Ohio, but a potential for seismic events or serious leaks nonetheless remains, experts say. For that reason, the nearby town of Niles recently banned injection wells on its territory.

"The earthquakes shook people up and made them realize the risks of the gas industry," says John Williams, 55, a Niles native, both of whose grandfathers worked in the steel mills.

At the end of 2011, Williams and a few other local residents organized a grassroots movement against injection wells and fracking, Frackfree Mahoning Valley, which has since grown in popularity, staging a number of rallies and information sessions. And although some Youngstown residents see anti-fracking organizations as an obstacle to economic recovery, the area's long tradition of unionism and populist activism have generally cast environmental protests in a positive light.

But Williams has gone even further. When the company Consol Energy was recently allowed to drill a shale gas well in the protection area of Meander Creek Reservoir, which supplies drinking water to all the residents of Youngstown and adjoining residential areas, he started his own private monitoring initiative, PEEPS (People's Essential Environmental Protection Service).

Almost daily, Williams measures samples with professional water-testing equipment from a nearby creek that empties directly into the reservoir.

So far, he has not noticed any problems, but he keeps his guard up.

"It's a way that people can defend their property, their water and air. Government agencies are not protecting us the way we think they should, but the technology exists so we can protect ourselves," he says.

"Chances are there won't be an accident. But if there is one at Meander Creek Reservoir, it would be a lot more than just jobs that people would have to worry about."

But shale gas from the Utica and the Marcellus is just one side of the today's fossil-fuel boom around the Youngstown area. Although much smaller in scale and overall impact, a number of gas wells are being drilled in a shallower rock formation called Clinton sandstones. And reports of groundwater pollution are already coming in.

Jaime Frederick, 34, of Coitsville, Ohio, just east of Youngstown, has ten gas wells within half a mile of her house. Three years ago, just as she moved in, she started experiencing a number of mysterious liver, kidney and intestinal problems. After five surgeries and the removal of her gallbladder, she tested her water and found that it was polluted with high levels of barium, strontium and toluene – chemicals associated with drilling and hydraulic fracturing.

It was only when she stopped drinking her water that her medical condition improved. Today, Frederick has a massive filtration system in her house, as well as gas detectors on every floor.

"How can they say it’s OK you're getting sick because somebody is getting a job? To me that’s not OK. It's going to make this area a place where people wouldn’t want to live anymore. And it’s already been that for so long. Companies are turning residential land into an industrial warzone," she says.

Yet, despite the dangers of gas drilling, many residents of Youngstown continue to feel this is a good chance for the city to come back to life and maybe revive its old manufacturing glory. The question is how much "soot" the new industry would produce and how much of it residents are willing to bear for better jobs.

"It's a fact of life. It's going to happen. We may cry or complain, but the economic impact is too big to be stopped," says Jack Kravitz, the owner of the oldest deli in Youngstown, whose business has jumped up by 20 percent in the past year.

Both opponents and proponents of shale gas development, however, agree the state has to institute a stricter regulatory regime to ensure environmental safety and people's health. There are also calls for much higher taxes on the industry -- the current proposal of Ohio's governor John Kasich envisions just 1.5 percent tax on annual gross sales in the first year and 4 percent annually after that -- so the whole region could better benefit from its own resources.

"People are cautiously optimistic," says Phil Kidd, a community organizer and owner of Youngstown Nation, a popular gift shop in the downtown area. "There's a desire to see this happen, because we desperately need the economic development, but we are also concerned about the environmental aspects of it because once this resource is extracted these companies are gone. If Youngstown, Ohio, can't learn from its past, I don't know what community can."

Reporting for this article was funded by the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting and Calkins Media. Dimiter Kenarov is a freelance journalist based in Istanbul, Turkey. To learn more about the impacts of fracking, visit Link TV's ISSUE: Fracking page.

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Fracking Hell? How Poland's Dash for Gas Turned Sour

Poland is about to open its doors to an unprecedented gas boom. But with multinational energy companies circling and controversial hydraulic fracturing -- or fracking -- about to begin, people and the environment are in the firing line. Andrew Wasley reports from Gdansk, Northern Poland, for Link TV and The Ecologist.


Chris Faulkner is an oil man. From Dallas, Texas. And his company, Breitling Oil and Gas, is a major player in the burgeoning shale gas sector. 


Faulkner is in London to give a presentation on whether Europe is the next shale gas hotspot, and to ask whether -- if so -- it has the necessary infrastructure to cope with a US style 'dash for gas'. 


But he's also here to explain how the controversial process for extracting underground shale gas reserves -- hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking' as it has become known -- can be green. 


Contrary to the myths spread by environmentalists and parts of the media, the oil man contends, injecting -- at high pressure -- a mixture of water, sand and chemicals deep into the earth to release gas reserves is not in itself bad for the environment. 


Instead, Faulkner believes, the oil and gas industry has done a poor job in marketing itself and in managing its public relations. This has, he argues, enabled others to speak for the industry, to capture the media agenda, and to spread alarm. 


"The image of lighting your water faucet on fire [a key sequence in the anti-fracking film Gasland] has become the viewpoint or the image of fracking around the world. Now the reality is the media loves sensationalism and that has now transcended the entire scientific evidence that says that fracking is safe," he says. 


The Breitling CEO does acknowledge that fracking has impacts. But he claims to have developed a programme -- Envirofrac -- to evaluate environmentally safe fracking procedures, thus helping to combat the problem.   


"Fracking can be green. The environmental impacts of fracking can be effectively curtailed through a combination of technology innovation and smart regulation," Faulkner says in the press release sent out ahead of his London visit.  


"The focus must be on water conservation, earth preservation, and air quality monitoring."


But these are not terms environmentalists normally associate with fracking. 


In the US, the issue has become a key battleground between green campaigners and the energy industry. One of the biggest -- and most bitter -- such scraps of recent years in fact. 


Advocates say fracking is safe (for people and the environment), secures a domestic gas resource to help boost energy security, provides jobs, and helps bring prosperity to sometimes impoverished communities.   


Critics say fracking is dangerous (for people and the environment), unnecessary, and the latest example of corporate America trampling over the rights of ordinary people.  


Anti-fracking protest signThey argue -- supported by a growing body of evidence, it seems -- that fracking involves an unacceptable level of water usage, contaminates water supplies and spills potentially toxic waste fluids into the environment. 


They also say the process uses an unsavoury mix of chemicals -- including known carcinogens -- and is a cause of air pollution, traffic congestion, noise, and a host of other problems.    


Campaigners fear too that the shale gas boom will divert attention away from the search for alternatives to fossil fuels, thus potentially derailing efforts to tackle climate change. 


Most recently, media reports have linked fracking to illnesses in livestock in a number of US states, including Pennsylvania, raising fears about food safety.  


Phamplets and brochures and slick talk


Thousands of miles from Pennsylvania, in a tiny hamlet called Ogonki, in an area of northern Poland known as Kashubia, it is reports such as this which worry Edward Sawicki. 


Sawicki is a farmer. A small scale organic producer with less than a dozen cows. 


His farm sits in a picturesque, rural area of rolling hills, pristine woodland and winding country lanes. 


The fields and forests give way occasionally to tiny villages, farms, and manicured churches. The kind of place where shops don't open on Sundays. 


Kashubia isn't officially independent from the rest of Poland, but many of its inhabitants would like to think it is, with their own dialect, flag and fiercely independent spirit. It's where some Poles take their vacation. The area has many summer houses and lakes, used for swimming or fishing. 


Sawicki is worried because the ground underneath him contains shale gas, and gas companies want to drill for it. 


In late 2011, industry representatives began visiting inhabitants in the region, Sawicki says, trying to secure permission to carry out geological surveys. 


The gas men came armed with pamphlets and brochures and slick talk, trying to persuade people that fracking was safe. 


But whilst some farmers in the region were quick to allow access to their land, Sawicki refused, worried by what he had read. 

"I mean, the first threat when it comes to hydraulic fracturing and numerous drillings regards our water, what will be done to test our drinking water..,? the farmer asks. 


"Secondly, how the air that we breathe is going to be treated, I mean, how the gas is going to be treated, the remains from the mining, not, as the government says green gas, but all the mess that will stay here."


Keen to illustrate what he believes is at stake, Sawicki takes us down through the freezing fields to the shoreline of a healthy-looking lake. 


There's lots of trees and greenery all around, and some log cabins nearby, some wild birds floating on the water -- the sort of place in summer where you could idle away an afternoon.     


"I am the owner of this land, here, in this direction and that," he asserts. "The forest and meadows belong to me. My property border is at the lake that is behind me. The lake is quite big, it stretches for 7 km. One of the fishermen I know fishes here in the lake, so it is still quite clean.


"My fear is that oil stains may appear on the surface if some trucks that carry chemical stuff... [lose their] content deliberately in our forests or in our watercourses here, and the lake might disappear altogether."


Back at the farmhouse, Sawicki tells us his opposition to the exploratory drilling has come at a price. 


"It all started when seismic companies, the ones who have been commissioned by the [gas] exploitation companies, started [to] intrude on us last year... and it was not only intrusion, it was harassment and terrorising, threatening with expropriation, financial fines, different things."


He says no more -- it is too complicated to go into any detail, he explains -- but our interpreter later tells us there's been phone calls and threats.   


Sawicki shows us an anti-fracking mural he's had painted on the side of a barn. 


Although it cannot have been seen by many people in person -- Ogonki is isolated, with few, if any, folk passing through -- the mural has been filmed and photographed by all the visiting journalists here.  


The painting, via this unexpected route, has thus reached thousands, perhaps millions.      


Jobs and prosperity 


There should be lots of people living in Kashubia, and indeed across Poland, worried like Edward Sawicki.


But Poland has embraced the US 'dash for gas', and its own shale gas potential, in an enthusiastic manner not seen elsewhere in Europe. 


Both the authorities and, according to some polls, a significant portion of the public, are in favour of gas development. They hanker after the promised foreign investment, the jobs, and the prosperity which will follow -- it is claimed -- the expected gas boom.    


The country is certainly sitting on a vast shale gas reserve -- initial figures put this at over 5 trillion cubic meters, later massively downgraded but huge all the same -- and the government knows it is valuable. 


So far, just over a hundred exploratory concessions have been awarded to energy firms (both Polish ventures and joint Polish-overseas partnerships) to drill and help ascertain for certain just how much gas is available -- and where. 


Officials have carved up vast swathes of the countryside and made it available to the circling prospectors.   


Exploratory drilling has not yet begun at the majority of sites however. Legislation expected to be finalised later this year will provide the necessary framework for full scale extraction to begin -- the "green light" for the gas rush as it is being seen by some. 


The government wants laws in place to tackle the thorny issues of environmental protection and taxation, particularly after several EU reports warned of the potential risks associated with fracking.      


Breitling Oil and Gas has recently explored potential investments in Poland's shale gas sector. Although Chris Faulkner says the future "looks bright," he is cautious about whether the country is yet ready, believing it to only have a "very rudimentary" framework in place. 


"Poland and other countries need to build a regulation framework that we know as oil and gas companies," he says. 


"What are the requirements to go into Poland and drill a gas well and frack it? What are the permitting requirements? What are the assessments? The environmental assessment requirements? What are the emergency assessments if we were to have a spill or if some kind of issue happens, you know, what are those procedures?"


A growing body of green campaigners, including big guns from Food and Water Watch and Friends of the Earth, are gathering in opposition too. They downplay the assertion that Poland will benefit, economically or otherwise, and point to the environmental red flags being waved from across the water in the US.  

"Despite the Polish government's glossy propaganda Polish people have not bought the alleged benefits of shale gas and, like the rest of Europe, are rightly sceptical about the benefits the gas industry claims it will bring," Antoine Simon, from Friends of the Earth Europe, says.  


"The European Parliament and European Commission recently questioned the European dash for gas and highlighted the numerous high risks associated with the extraction of shale gas. Concerned communities in Poland and across Europe are taking action against this dangerous experiment on health and the environment."


Livelihoods and future under threat  


In the village of Nowy Dwor Bratianski, deep in the bleak Polish countryside a long, twisty drive from the city of Gdansk, Barbara Grzybowska and Mieczyslaw Rutowski have found themselves on the sharp edge of the country's looming gas boom. 


Like Edward Sawicki, they are farmers, and worry how the arrival of an exploratory drilling rig nearby will affect their environment, particularly if water usage surges. 


"If it turns out that there is [a] shortage in water supply, our animal farming, our existence is really in danger," says Rutowski, looking out across the hillside.         


They explain in passionate detail how they sow crops at certain times of the year to maximise retention of valuable water resources, and ensure the best output from the unforgiving soil. 


These are people who know the land and its natural cycle, and fear that meddling by outsiders could damage, irrevocably, their livelihoods and future.  


What has alarmed the farmers most however is just how little information they say they have been given about the drilling. 


"We, the local residents are not a party in this deal. We haven't been informed at all about the planned construction... even on the village bulletin board where all ads are customarily published there was no information about building the drilling rigs," says Rutowski. "There was some information about construction of the access road but it was not stated that there will be a drilling rig."


The farmers accuse the local authorities -- as well as the gas company involved -- of effectively steamrollering the development through by allowing just two weeks for objections to be filed. Even then, only two people directly backing onto the gas rig were officially entitled to register objections, the farmers claim. Neither did. 


Not everyone in the region shares their views, as the farmers admit, but they say this is only because the facts have not been disseminated. Those that are aware are against the drilling, they say. But any information has had to come from the Internet. Or scattered public meetings. 


In the village of Niesiolowice, in Kashubia, Hieronim Wicek, a community leader, tells a similar tale. 


He says that in 2011, when the community learnt that exploratory drilling was earmarked to begin, residents were forced to look towards the western media for details on the possible impacts. 


"We found out... that hydraulic fracturing is not so good, that leakage to the ground water may appear after some time," says Wicek. "We saw it in Gasland, in Pennsylvania, and [learnt that] it is not so good neither for the natural environment nor for people."


Wicek acknowledges that there was a public meeting addressed by gas company representatives, but claims a video presentation showed a one sided view of fracking, with pipes being "cemented [and stating] that there is no way any liquid could leak through and pose a hazard to the ground waters."  


"They said it [Gasland] was a PR film and it is not true and we should not take it into consideration," he says.  


But the gas industry rejects the complaints that communities have been misinformed or ignored. 


"I've been to Poland, I've attended meetings in villages where oil and gas companies [...] have sat with people and explained to them what is happening, what the process is, and how it's going to impact the community," says Chris Faulkner. 


"I don't believe that every single person is being left in the dark; some folks feel like that but the information is being disseminated."


A passing Niesiolowice resident offers a slightly different perspective, saying she isn't opposed to gas, but is opposed to the method being used to get it. "Surely, gas is needed but should the price be paid by nature and people who live here?” she tells us. 


Asked whether the local authorities will protect the community from the the gas rush, she is unequivocal: "No, on the contrary, the authorities are for [gas]. Unfortunately they have coins in their eyes. Money rules nowadays and it is overwhelming."        


Small features in a big landscape


Fracking site

Without seeing a gas drilling rig -- or 'frack pad' as they are often known -- close up it's difficult to picture quite what having one in your back yard would feel like. 


Visit a disused one (during exploratory drilling the life cycle for frack pads is short, perhaps three months) and you'd probably wonder what all the fuss is about. 


A levelled off, concrete flooring. A fence surrounding a sealed hole where the drilling took place. The odd bit of piping, some bricks. Plastic fittings that could have come from any building site.      


Visit an active one and its a starkly different story, particularly at night. 


A vast crane-like machine periodically sliding up and down deep into the earth. It looks like a fairground ride from the future. 


Floodlights. A checkpoint. Keep out signs. Security men with crackling walkie talkies. Workers in hard hats. The constant roar of trucks. Unmarked lorries fitted with cylindrical containers holding who knows what liquid.   


At one site, an open gas flare shoots flames high into the sky. Nearby, a vast man-made lagoon foams water -- and what else? 


In the pamphlets and brochures distributed by the gas men it doesn't look like this. There, the frack pads are usually photographed from above, the drilling sites neatly fitting into the patchwork of fields and forests -- just a small feature in a big landscape. 


It has been reported that each exploratory drilling well in Poland costs its operators some $10 million. Not much of that finds its way to those on whose land the drilling takes place. 


One farmer we meet claims he was approached by a company wanting to build a road across his land. This road, it turned out, was to carry the heavy traffic required to construct a major gas drilling site. 


Although the farmer declines to be specific, he says he receives around 200 Euros a month as part of a year-long contract leasing almost 5 hectares of farmland to the gas company. 


He's not worried, although says the terms of the contract mean he can't change his mind about allowing the exploration, even if he wants to. The gas firm can pull out at any time. 


The farmer tells us he isn't aware of any issues surrounding water usage, and seems unconcerned about any environmental issues linked to fracking. He has his own well right here on the farm.             

A toxic threat


Dr Wlodzimierz Zgoda, an eminent chemist from the University of Gdansk, has been monitoring the Polish gas debate as it has unfolded, and has deep concerns about the scale of development. 


"The greatest threat, which people do not realise and treat lightly, is that only one [gas] well is shown to them. [If shale gas] is found, there are going to be many wells, so many it is hard to imagine," he says.   


"It is said, five, ten or 15,000 wells over ten years [could come], plus a huge movement of [an] entire fleet of trucks, cisterns, huge amounts of water, pipelines that will be built, gas treatment plants, gas tanks... it will become a mining landscape."    


The chemist also says that that the arrival of fracking could in fact damage parts of the economy. "People, certainly, will experience loss, especially those who [have] invested in tourism, and [the potential] threat of spills or pollution of the environment will discourage buyers from buying agricultural produce."


He's worried too about what chemicals will actually be used in the fracking process. 


In the US, it is this issue that has proved among the most controversial. The gas industry is quick to point out that only a small percentage of the frack fluid being pumped into the ground -- less than 1 per cent overall -- consists of chemicals, and consistently plays down the use of toxic substances.  


But environmental campaigners reel off an alarming sounding list of additives they say are added to frack fluid, including some linked to cancer. 


They say that kerosene and diesel fuel, which can contain benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene -- and other substances -- are reportedly used, as are methanol and formaldehyde, ethylene glycol, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, among many others. 


Lead, crystalline silica and naphthalene have also been cited as ingredients in frack fluid.  


And even if the percentages used are small, say critics, with so many drillings taking place -- in Pennsylvania alone, government estimates have predicted that 3,000-4,000 new gas wells will be drilled each year for the next 30 years -- the total chemical count is dangerously high.  


Campaigners also point out that it could only take a relatively small amount of chemical to pollute a much larger area of land or water.  


Although there is -- as yet -- little evidence of any contamination connected to Poland's exploratory gas drilling, activists say it is only a matter of time.  


"Fracking is a dangerous American export that should be viewed critically by countries just starting to engage in the practice," Wenonah Hauter, the head of Food and Water Watch, recently warned. 


"Modern drilling and fracking have caused widespread environmental and public health problems, as well as posed serious, long-term risks to vital water resources... while the oil and gas industry is profiting off of this technology, it has been a disaster for Americans exposed to its pollution."


But for Breitling's Chris Faulkner such comments are part of the sensationalism he says has developed around fracking. 


He accuses campaigners of having an agenda which is "sometimes based on misinformation, misinterpretation, misspoke concerns," and says that their passion "sometimes weaves a story that maybe is based on fear mongering or actual non-fact."


But he admits there are risks -- as with any energy mechanism: "It's not fracking that is unsafe. It's not the procedures that are unsafe, but if someone makes a mistake, anything can happen," he says. 


"We're foolish to think that there's some form of energy... that pops out of the ground, powers the plug in the wall and produces energy that has no consequences. [That's] just not realistic."   


Winning hearts and minds


Back in Nowy Dwor Bratianski, Barbara Grzybowska and Mieczyslaw Rutowski want to tell us about one additional concern they have. 


The farmers say that in order to help win hearts and minds in this deeply religious community the gas industry brought in a local priest. He in turn, they claim,  'blessed' a gas rig during an opening ceremony attended by local people. 


"Yes, I was surprised," says Rutowski. "The parish priest came to bless the work... I smile at this and rather consider it to be a pact with the devil, not [a] blessing of the rig site."  


Dr Zgoda says he has noted a wider marketing drive being undertaken by the gas companies to sway local communities. 


"It is standard for them [gas companies] to be giving out small gifts, inexpensive ones, to schools, to kindergartens... municipal councils and mayors are taken on tours supposedly to show them some drilling sites, plus there are some attractions such as dinners with performances and champagne."


We track down the priest understood to be involved in the 'blessing' of the rig. 


Unwilling to be interviewed formally, he admits his involvement but denies there were any strings attached. No donations or gifts from the gas company to the church. Just a small sum for children, he says, who were about to go to a summer camp.       


Andrew Wasley is a UK-based investigative journalist specializing in the environment and consumer affairs. He was editor of the Ecologist magazine between 2010 and 2012, is a co-founder of the Ecologist Film Unit and a director of the ethical research agency Ecostorm. He regularly reports from Link TV's Earth Focus program.

To learn more about the impacts of fracking, visit Link TV's ISSUE: Fracking page, and watch this Earth Focus report about the dash for gas in Poland, a program supported by Food and Water Watch and Friends of the Earth Europe.


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