Coughing up Coal: Reporting from the Frontline of India's Health Crisis
Champa's eyes are surrounded by dark circles and her face is thin and drawn. It began with a fever, pain in her limbs, and she was then diagnosed with Tuberculosis.

"I was diagnosed with TB two years ago now," she said. "I have been on medication but I am not getting any better. I have difficulty breathing and even talking is hard. It has been five-six  years, ever since the plant started, our problems have started too."

Champa is one of hundreds of thousands of people in India whose health and lives are being blighted by the country's surge in coal-based electrical power generation.

India today ranks third in the world in the production of carbon dioxide and is burning more coal than ever before, with 66% of power generated by coal fired thermal power plants.

Future plans are for expansion, with the 12th five- year plan ending in 2017 adding 76GW of coal-fired power capacity and with the 13th five-year plan (between 2017-2022) adding another 93GW -- an aggressive industrial response to a growing population, a middle class hungry for modernity, and an energy policy that holds coal powered energy as integral to the development of the country's economy.

According to The Lancet's Global Burden of Diseases Study (December 2012), outdoor air pollution -- from power stations, other industry, transport, and domestic fuel burning for heat and cooking -- is among the top 10 causes of death in India. Regulations do exist in India, but are rarely enforced.

"In India we do have ambient air quality standards," said Sarath Guttikunda, chemical engineer and director at Urban Emissions in New Delhi. "But, we have found these regulations lag behind the numbers that we have seen in Europe, United States and even in China, and there is a lot of room for improvement."

In the first ever report focusing on the health impacts of the coal industry in India, scientists estimate that in 2011-2012, air pollution from coal fired power plants alone was responsible for 80,000-115,000 premature deaths. Diseases caused by pollution included 20.9 million asthma attacks, bronchitis and respiratory conditions and cardiovascular disease. These health impacts are estimated to cost India $3.3 billion to $4.6 billion per year in medical expenses and lost work days.

Singrauli - India's "Energy Capital"

Singrauli, known as the "energy capital" of the country, is the industrial hub of north-central India. It produces 10% of the country's coal based power, and straddles the border of the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Priya Pillai, Senior Campaigner for Greenpeace India has worked on the ground in the area for over three years. "There are nine thermal power plants and eleven operational mines, and this is concentrated in one district. That's the Singrauli region. And it's because of this that you'll find the large number of cases of asthma of tuberculosis of skin diseases, of cancer," Pillai explained.

Industrialized Landscape

Singrauli was once covered in forest and rich agricultural land, but the region's coal lies underneath these forests, meaning that they are being cleared at an alarming rate, further threatening endangered species and displacing tribal communities to make way for this energy juggernaut.

The landscape is now one of industrial devastation and critical levels of pollution, recently rated the third most polluted industrial cluster in the country by the comprehensive environmental pollution index. Air, water and soil have all been affected.

The open cast mines that scar the landscape resemble vast craters, streaked black with coal, trimmed green at the edges with what is left of rapidly dwindling forest.  Huge dump trucks and cranes appear like miniatures in the distance, barely visible through the poisonous haze that hangs in the air.

Milky white stagnant ash ponds, hold the by product of the industry, fly ash. Experts warn of acute health problems related to coal and the ash that it produces, which contains toxic heavy metals including mercury, arsenic, lead, nickel, barium and even radioactive substances such as uranium and thorium. Black spiky stalks of dead foliage poke out of the sludge in these ponds, testifying to its toxicity.

Man-made mountains of waste rubble, excavated and dumped, gradually bury villages. Coal-filled train bunkers and conveyor belts, some as long as 25km, snake from mines to thermal power plants, These stacks dominate the skyline, looming over human settlements and pumping out smoke which can reach as far as 400k, choking communities below. The air is permanently clouded, limiting visibility, with the smell and taste of coal dominating the senses. Everything is blanketed in a layer of dust.

Chilika Dand

Chilika Dand, in the Sonebhadra district of Singrauli, Uttar Pradesh, is one of the most critically affected displacement communities, with many people having been moved, often forcibly, numerous times to make way for coal excavation by an industry that is making them sick.

The village of around 12,000 people, is surrounded by multiple power plant stacks emitting putrid smoke. There is a railway line and road both carrying coal and a fully operational open cast mine just 50 meters away. Villagers claim that at night, filters are removed from the stacks, and ash falls and settles on rooftops like toxic snow.

There is a constant industrial hum of engines revving and the scrape of metal on stone. Twice daily explosive blasts, and the subsequent patter and thud of debris are more reminiscent of the sounds of war than of development. Few of the concrete rehabilitation blocks of 30 x 50 feet escape cracked walls due to tremors from the blasts.

Manonit G Ravi, an activist and resident of Chilika Dand shouted over the noise of engines to make himself heard. "The entire village vibrates with the blasts. Sometimes they are so big and loud, people run out of their houses thinking there might be an earthquake."

Sanitation is a big problem, as the allocated plots leave little room for toilets. In summer, asphyxiating dust fills the air, and in winter and rainy seasons, there is a constant septic sludge underfoot. The smell, a mix of human and animal excrement, combined with acrid industrial pollution makes the air gritty, stinging eyes and making breathing a struggle.

Residents of Chilika Dand say that illness and disease is rife in the community, with cancer, kidney failure, diabetes, vitiligo (the blanching of skin through pigment loss), hair loss and psychosis widespread, all linked to contaminated water, coal ash, particles in the air and high levels of mercury present in the environment.

The World Health Organization states that even minimal exposure to mercury may cause health problems, including neurological damage to unborn fetuses and children, and is considered "one of the top ten chemicals or groups of chemicals of major public health concern." Coal fired power stations are sited as one of the main ways that mercury is released into the environment.

Siraj Un Nissa, a resident of Chilika Dand and mother of eight has Vitiligo. Her hands, arms and mouth are blanched, and her whole body is patchy where pigment has been lost. "I have been sick for the past eight years," she said. "The dust is making it hard for us to live here. No electricity. We get it for one hour and it's gone. We don't have a proper house to live in, just a make-shift shelter. We don't have anything. No one cares about the poor."

Jharia

Jharia, in neighbouring Madhya Pradesh, has almost disappeared. The remote village is being buried under waste from a nearby mine opened in 2006. A thin sliver of green and only around 30% of its population is all that remains of this forest dwelling community of Harijan people, squashed against a sheer, slowly encroaching, man made cliff of debris.

Bandhu Saket, resident of Jharia explained how their health has been affected by the mine."My youngest grandson gets so unwell, his teeth start chattering and his eyes enlarge, it feels like he will not get better," he said. "It never used to be like this. Ever since the companies have come, since the vehicles have been driving back and forth, since the blasting has started, illness and disease have been spreading.  They dump things in all directions and when it is summertime, with all the dust, one cannot see anything so how can you expect anything else but to get sick!"

There was once a well that provided drinking water to the village, but the company filled it in. Now Bandhu Saket said they are forced to drink "whatever we find in the drains or irainwater collected."

Manbasia, also from Jharia, is a mother of three. Supporting herself against a huge rock from the mine, she struggled to control the emotion in her voice, and spoke shakily of illness and disease in what is left of her community.  "I can't see very well, my chest hurts, my feet don't allow me to sit down or stand up," she said. "We have no one here to help or support us. If someone is dying, there is no one to look after them or save them. Who are we meant to turn to?"

Dr. R.B. Singh

Dr. R.B. Singh worked in the area for over 20 years, treating the local population in their homes, in the small private practice that adjoins his home, and the Singrauli District Hospital next door. He attributes the huge increase in death, sickness and disease to the growth of the industry in the region.

"Since the time the new industries have come here and the coal mine belt has progressed," he said. "The patients we see in our new Out Patients Department present themselves with skin diseases and lung diseases, bronchitis, asthma and silicosis, and because of the contaminated drinking water, amoebiasis and other abdominal ailments, which have increased. I have come across bone cancer, mouth cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer. In children, bone cancer -- and in middle aged people, mouth cancer -- these are common here."

There is a constant stream of patients outside Dr Singh's private practice, all needing attention and treatment. The District Hospital next door to his practice is in desperate need of facilities. A dilapidated shell with dark corridors, a blood splattered maternity ward and rainwater coming through gaps in the ceiling. Wards are crowded but very quiet, with beds full, people lying on the floor and a distinct absence of staff.

"We have a problem with a lack of doctors as most of them qualify and go abroad. They do not want to work in these small places," said Dr. Singh.

Sarath Guttikunda, Director at Urban Emissions, New Delhi is a chemical engineer and air pollution expert. "When you are focusing on outdoor air pollution two things which are really important, one is your lungs, and other one is your heart. Among the respiratory problems, the main one is the asthma," he said. "People who are already suffering from asthma are obviously going to get affected even more, and children and older generation people, they are the ones that we see are getting affected the most."
 
Gaiman Prasad Kanojiya, a school teacher in Lojhara village, said that sickness is rife in his students, with coughing and sneezing a constant sound in the classroom. Absenteeism is common due to ill health, and parents are deeply worried about their children.

"When I go to teach, there are 216 children," he said. "Out of those, if only 100 or 150 of them turn up, it makes us wonder why the children haven't turned up. When we inquire, the child's guardian tells us that their child has been unwell or that because we had to go to the hospital, they didn't make it to school, or that for the past 15 days she's been sick and lying in bed. These kind of problems come up a lot."

Broken Promises

All over Singrauli, locals speak of sickness, their land and livelihoods being taken away, and promises of rehousing, education, employment and healthcare from industry that haven't materialized.

Rangeet Gupta is a local activist and youth worker living and working in the area. He said that after "persistent reminding" industry still has not delivered the services that it promised. That means that proper healthcare, among other things, remains available only to people who can afford it, or those who work for the industry.

"In this area of ours, there isn't even a decent hospital for the displaced community, they have nothing at all, no schools, no doctors, no hospital, no roads, not even an arrangement for hygiene and sanitation. They have just been abandoned," said Gupta.

Champa, like so many others, experienced this first hand, buying her own medicine when she has the money to do so, and going without treatment when she can't afford it.

"We receive no help from the people at the plant at all. Since the health problems started because of the plant, we have not been given so much as a single tablet by them or the government."

As the health situation gets more critical, scientists, medical professionals and environmental campaigners all predict that if India pushes forward with the planned expansion of coal-fired power generation and regulations remain unenforced, the consequences to human life will be even more devastating.

"The calculations that we have done for the current number of power plants, we have seen close too 100,000 premature deaths, and if we are going to triple the number of power plants and don't do anything about the regulations, we will at least triple this number, and looking at health impacts of the air pollutions in the range of 300,000 premature deaths," said Sarath Guttikunda.

Doctor Singh warned that the atmosphere in Singrauli will be polluted "to such a degree that it will not be viable to live here any more." Champa, Manbasia and their families, along with hundreds of thousands of other people, face a future of poverty, sickness and death with no means of escape.  Manbasia reflected, "Now, with the dust and smoke bellowing, there are people getting sick. And if you don't have the money like us, what do we do? Kill ourselves?"

Sarah Stirk is a journalist and filmmaker with The Ecologist Film Unit in the United Kingdom.
 
 

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Party Fowl: Bird Flu Outbreak Threatens New Year's Celebrations

Throughout much of Asia, people are celebrating the traditional New Year. In China, it’s called the Spring Festival. In Korea and Vietnam, the Lunar New Year. But regardless of the country, chicken is supposed to be on the menu. A chicken in every pot represents good fortune in the coming year. But a bird flu epidemic is overshadowing the holiday. Tens of thousands of chickens and ducks have been destroyed in an effort to stop the disease.  In southern China, more than 100 people came down with bird flu in January. At least a dozen have died. And the centerpiece of the New Year dinner is viewed with alarm. Here’s Japan’s public broadcaster, NHK, with a report.


Reporter:

Friday was the start of the Lunar New year. Many Chinese families will buy live poultry from local markets to cook it for family gatherings


Man on the street:

Live birds, killed fresh, taste much better”


Reporter:

But this year will be different because of bird flu.


News Anchor:

A market in Hangzhou was shut down. The agricultural department has banned keeping live poultry at home.”


Reporter:

Health officials in China are reporting that 103 patients have been diagnosed with bird flu in January alone. Of these, 49 cases are in the eastern province of Zhejiang. Others have been found in southern provinces like Guangdong. So far, 22 patients have died. The hospital in Zhejiang is crowded with people who fear they are infected by the bird flu virus. Health officials have been shutting down markets that sell live poultry for fear that the virus may be passed on to people through contact with live birds. But about a 30-minute drive from downtown Shanghai, we found an illegal vendor. He was selling chickens and pigeons. Clients would choose which ones they like, then he would kill them. The price is about 20% cheaper than the normal market price.


Bird Vendor:

Our market was shut down by the government. We had to kill 2,000 birds by ourselves. But we didn’t get any compensation. We have no choice but to sell our birds, in the street.


Reporter:

A few days ahead of the Lunar New Year, the demand for chicken meat picks up, and loads of them are being transported all across China. During the New Year season more than 3 billion people move around the continent too. The World Health Organization claims that there has been no evidence of sustained human to human transmission of the virus. But the authorities remain vigilant asking people to avoid contact with live birds.

 
 

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Could This Japanese Solution Provide Millions of Asians with Clean Water?

And now to a problem that's affecting hundreds of millions of people in Asia. More than 650 million don't have clean water to drink. A city in Japan says it has a solution. Here's NHK with the story.


Reporter:

Regional municipalities operate almost all the water work systems in Japan. The city of Kitakyushu in western Japan provides clean tap water to the city’s 490-thousand households. The city developed a water-purifying machine with the private company 15 years ago. Micro-organisms attached to activated carbon dissolve the pollutants. The machine is half the price of other technologies. It uses less chlorine to disinfect the water. Kitakyushu officials started promoting the technology with private firms from 2010 to emerging economies in Asia.


Kazuya Kubata, Waterworks Bureau:

Kitakyushu has a long history as a city of technology and manufacture. It's our mission to take  action. That’s something we must do.


Reporter:

Kitakyushu officials are now turning their attention to Vietnam. Haiphong is the country’s third biggest city. Raw sewage and industrial wastewater is discharged into rivers. The river water is purified for use in tap water by adding lots of chlorine. But that combination can generate harmful substances. Citizens boil tap water for drinking and cooking. They want clean water that their children can safely drink.


Parent:

I don’t feel safe using tap water. I feel uneasy. Because I have small children. But I don’t have any other choice.


Reporter:

Kitakyushu officials told their counterparts at the Haiphong Water Authority about their water purification technology. The Vietnamese officials liked what they saw and decided to start using the Japanese system. It went into operation last month.

The Haiphong officials based their decision on low cost of the Japanese system and the fact that it uses less chlorine. The machine succeeded in eliminating most of the pollutants.

The Japanese system has caught the attention of officials in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam’s biggest city.

They started testing at this month. That could lead to a deal worth almost 20 million dollars. Seven other Vietnamese cities have also asked Kitakyushu officials to do on site service.


Ho Chi Minh City water official:

Providing people safe water supply is one of our biggest goals. I hope their technology will bring us good results.


Kazuya Kubota:

If we want to get orders from abroad. We need to go into the field with local officials, and talk with them about what needs to be done.


Reporter:

Kitakyushu officials have high hopes for their work in Vietnam. They hope it will encourage Japanese companies to work together to design water resource management systems and win orders from overseas clients.

 

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Dispatch from the Fracking Front Lines: Transylvania Fights Back

[Reprinted with author's permission from The Ecologist]

 

As the headlights fade around the bend, the team begins their work, snipping the orange seismic wires and slicing through electrical converters and generator boxes.

"Do you think they're about to have sex?" one of the group whispers. I'm in Transylvania, crouched in the bushes with a bunch of activists in balaclavas, taking turns to speculate why a car has crept to a halt close to where we are hiding out. "No, it must be the cops, you can see the light from the mobile phone," another one says. Time to move on.

It has been over an hour since the group started trashing equipment owned by the gas exploration company Prospectiuni, playing an edgy game of cat and mouse as we struggle to stay one step ahead of the security teams and police vehicles that are now sweeping the hilltops looking for us.

Another light tears round the bend on the road and the shout goes through the team to hide. I throw myself down, stretched out once again in the cool damp grass of a Transylvanian meadow. It's going to be a long night.

In recent weeks the sleepy Saxon communities and protected forests of Sibiu county in Transylvania, have become an unlikely front for a new battleground, pitting gas exploration companies, the Romanian government, and international investment firms against a small band of environmental activists from across Romania. The activists are working side by side with local farmers to resist gas and oil exploration that they claim is taking place illegally on their land.

Listed on the London Stock exchange just two weeks ago with brokering assistance from Goldman Sachs, the Romanian gas company Romgaz has long announced plans to explore the low-lying hills of Transylvania for conventional and also unconventional sources of gas and oil.

Nobody gave it another thought until the exploration began in earnest this month, when 34-ton earthquake-inducing seismic trucks growled into the muddy tracks of villages here, accompanied by cohorts of security guards and busloads of workers.

Communities told me that they awoke to ribbons being laid out across their lands even attached to their garden fences, signals for the companies to lay cables and plant the explosives for the seismic tests.

Today the villages and fields are peppered in strips of ribbon, stretching like spaghetti across this ancient landscape of beech forests, bee hives and the harvested stubs of organic corn fields intermingled with medieval villages and citadels.

Jim Wickens/EFU
The village gathers to protest fracking. Photo: Jim Wickens/EFU.

All the seismic tests are taking place within Romania's largest Natura 2000 site. Several of the churches here are UNESCO heritage sites, visited both by Princes Charles and Edward in recent years.

Driving into the remote communities where the seismic tests are taking place feels like walking into an occupied territory. I watch as a team of workers prepare a hole with dynamite a few metres from the village football pitch. On the high street private security jeeps can be seen parked up at the crossroads, black uniformed men filming and following our every move.

At the end of the road an elderly orthodox priest ushers me inside nervously, asking not to be identified. "They told me not to talk with you", he says. "The bishops say it is not the role of a priest to get involved in community affairs." He pauses, a flash in his eyes, almost thinking aloud.

"We thought they had come to rebuild the playground - then the earthquake happened, shaking the houses here, causing cracks and breaking ornaments inside the houses. The people were scared. Nobody asked us permission, they didn't even tell us what they were doing."

He is interrupted by a shrill ringtone on his mobile. Fifteen minutes later he returns to the kitchen, told again by his superiors to be quiet. The interview is over. "They know you are here", he says, showing us the door.

We keep moving out of the village, following the ribbons and the intermittent booming sounds of controlled explosions echoing around the valleys. Away from the security guards, a lady speaks up. "They are thieves," she hisses. Her neighbor comes over begging for answers. "We've heard the land will be poisoned, is this true? We live from this land. We don't have salaries!"

At the top of a hill I find a giant geological lab on wheels, antennae dangling on top and men pouring over electrical equipment inside. A small portly man introduces himself. Gheorghe Daianu, a seismologist and director of operations for the exploration company Prospectiuni, which has been subcontracted for 40 million euros to carry out the tests in the region.

He condemns the protests against his work, calling opponents of gas exploration "neo fascists." Daianu is resolute that the company has permission to be on every parcel of land where the tests are taking place, a claim he says that can be backed up with paperwork, before he orders us to leave the area.

I head to the nearby village of Mosna, where farmer Willy Schuster and his wife Lavinia have invited me to stay at their home to cover a protest planned against the exploration activities.

Amidst clucking chickens, roaring fires, and cheese-making in the kitchen, a dozen activists began to arrive from across the country, updating Facebook accounts and charging their cameras for the following day. This would be the first protest against gas exploration in Transylvania, they explained, urging me to get an early night's sleep. But first I had another appointment.

Bundled into a rusty van under cover of darkness from a pre-arranged location, I found myself sat in the midst of a dozen men and women in balaclavas. The driver turns to greet me. "Don't worry about our get-away vehicle - it's super quick. Only 350,000km on the clock!" She laughs out loud as the rusty door slams shut, and the team trundles away into the frosty darkness.

Jim Wickens/EFU
Fracking protester with seismic wires. Photo: Jim Wickens/EFU.

Minutes later, I am bundled out onto the roadside with military precision, scurrying into the undergrowth with half a dozen adrenaline-fuelled activists, armed with pliers and wire cutters. As soon as the headlights fade round the bend, the team began their work, snipping the orange seismic wires and slicing through electrical converters and generator boxes they come across.

Every so often a shout goes up, and the team is sent diving for cover as the sweeping headlights of suspected security vehicles sweep across from the road close by. Part army, part anarchy, the evening is spent in a whirlwind of adrenalin-fuelled scrambling among remote hills under the light of a full moon, clawing through scratchy thorn bushes, woodland clearings and boggy streams. Beneath the balaclavas, members of the team gradually open up to me.

"Several months ago none of us knew each other, but now we are united. We are so angry about the way our country is being run. 2013 must be the year that Romania wakes up, that citizens begin to have a say in what is happening to our country. Things like fracking have to stop. We cannot accept the destruction of our own future."

At seven the next morning I sat drinking coffee with Willy in his farmhouse kitchen when a convoy of gas trucks rolls past his window en route to his fields. He runs out of the door chasing after them, apoplectic with rage.

I arrive on scene just in time to see workers from the exploration company filing out of their company coach and spreading out across his wintery fields. Willy screams them away, impounding a company pickup and refusing to let it go until the police come to file a criminal complaint.

As the morning unfolds, streams of security trucks are chased, kicked, and turned away from Willy's land. "I am terrified for my children", he says, waving a flimsy branch at the assembled security forces facing him down on the muddy track. "I am fighting for their future."

A man more accustomed to milking cows than fighting multinationals, he is nonetheless standing up to the gas companies. Many more are beginning to follow the example of this accidental hero who is rapidly becoming a thorn in the side of the country's energy ambitions.

Southern Transylvania's rolling hills are one of several new fronts opening up in Romania's search for home-grown deposits of natural gas and oil, a treasure-trove of energy opportunities according to energy-extraction advocates.

Victor Ponta, the Romanian prime minister, made a bold statement to journalists in June this year, laying the way for a swathe of expansion by fossil fuel companies across the hills of Europe's second poorest nation.

"Do we want to have gas? First of all to stop importing from Russia. Do we want to have it cheap and do we want to make the Romanian industry competitive and, of course, to have lower expenses for the people? Then we must have gas."

But Ponta's government is facing an unexpectedly uphill battle in meeting their resource ambitions. In recent weeks the controversial Canadian-owned gold mine in Rosia Montana has been put on hold, forced into submission by waves of protests in city streets numbering tens of thousands.

And in the latest public showdown, a fracking rig operated by Chevron further south, has been chased away from a test site by communities deeply fearful of the damage that they believe fracking may bring.

With almost four million peasant farmers in Romania reliant on clean air, water, and soil for their livelihood, support for natural resource protection campaigns are finding fertile ground in the most unlikeliest of places, among the conservative communities in the country's rural heartland.

I meet Hettie, a 26-year-old activist from the nearby city of Brasov, as she blocks the road to Willy's land. "If villagers see us doing it, they will do it too," she says. "We have to give people the courage to do this at any time."

Faced with an increasingly galvanized opposition, the government is preparing to fight back. A "Law of Expropriation", currently being drafted in the Romanian Parliament, will potentially allow multinational companies to take over privately-owned land if it is felt the developments are "in the national interest." At present, the law is focused primarily around mining. But observers say it is widely expected to be extended to energy development projects in the near future.

Jim Wickens/EFU
Fighting with the police. Photo: Jim Wickens/EFU

 

The stand-off in Willy's field is rapidly escalating into a community affair. Half a dozen security cars remain blocked, prevented from moving forward by a growing throng of local residents, joined by Roma kids on bicycles and a young woman riding a horse. A farmer appears in an orchard on the other side of the valley where minutes earlier gas workers had been busy rolling up electrical wiring.

Gheorghe Daianu, the Prospectiuni seismologist, spits angrily, wiping his wrinkled forehead in frustration and sucking heavily on a cigarette. "Of course they have no permission to be here, but what can I do?"

Community activists claim that half a dozen laws are being breached by Prospectiuni in their gas exploration, from lacking the appropriate permits, testing too close to homes, through to committing trespass. "The real problem here is that village people simply don't know their rights," says community activist Hans Hedrich.

Prospectiuni and Romgaz both turned down an opportunity to comment on claims of illegality, but in a statement on their website the CEO of Prospectiuni states: "Occasionally we still make mistakes, but they are not ill-intentioned, however we try to have active environmental permits and town planning certificates."

By late afternoon, under the lee of another 600-year-old medieval church, volunteers are dishing out potato soup, Transylvanian cakes and hot tea - with surprising efficiency. Elderly ladies in headscarves and traditional dress are rubbing shoulders with pierced activists and men in balaclavas.

It's an intriguing mix. The impassioned crowd marches out to rip out more seismic wires in full view of the policemen who stand watching from the side of the road. Residents too scared to talk the day before now stand outside their houses, cheering and applauding the protestors in delight.

"Honestly, I feel sorry for them," one of the police officers tells me, as they stand aside and allow the protestors to rip out a mile of bright orange cabling, dragging it through the dust on their way back to the village. "What the company is doing here ... well ... it's just wrong." Then he moves his head closer to mine. "Actually it's illegal," he whispers.

Jim Wickens is an investigative journalist. He works for the Ecologist Film Unit and is a regular correspondent for The Ecologist.

 
 

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With Typhoon Relief Scant, Residents Rush to Leave Tacloban
Typhoon HaiyanThe Philippines was devastated by Typhoon Haiyan over the weekend. One hundred and ninety mile per hour winds and a storm surge of more than 13 feet battered the coastline. The city of Tacloban was hit especially hard. More than 650,000 were displaced, at least 9.5 million people have been affected, and damage costs will exceed USD$70 million according to one report. More than 2500 are dead and that But more urgently, those affected are facing food and water shortages since aid is slow to reach the disaster area. Japanese public broadcaster NHK reported from the scene.

Reporter:
Bodies litter the landscape. Some of the dead remain buried beneath debris. People have lost their homes, and their belongings. Food and drinking water are scarce. More and more people say their only option is to leave. The airport in Tacloban is only open to military aircraft and chartered planes. We saw hundreds of people struggling to enter. With nothing left here for them, these people here are scrambling not for food but for a ride in the c-130 plane that will take them out of here. Security guards tried to stop the crush of the people at the gate.

Resident 1:
We need to go elsewhere to live because we have no more food.

Resident 2:
We lost our home. Life is very difficult here. Kids are getting sick from the smell of dead bodies. We have nothing to eat anymore.

Resident 3:
Anywhere, but not here. We want to get out.

Reporter:
Residents fear for their safety. They say armed looters are taking what little food remains. Philippine troops are putting priority on airlifting sick people and families with small children off the island. Every flight that leaves is packed. From the air, the devastation in Tacloban becomes clearer. The people who've managed to flee consider themselves lucky.
 
 

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Japan: Crews Start Process of Removing Fukushima Fuel Rods
FukushimaThe 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami rocked Japan, causing catastrophic damage to the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The outcome was a meltdown of the plant's number four reactor, causing an environmental disaster not seen since Chernobyl. Now, after two years of careful planning, crews are ready to start the delicate process of removing the reactor's roughly 1500 fuel rods. Once again, here's NHK.

Reporter:
The media entered the Fukushima-Daiichi plant on Wednesday to see the number four reactor building. The building contains more than 1500 fuel units. Most of them have been used. They're extremely hot, highly radioactive, and experts say they need to be kept cool for 30-40 years. The rods are stored in a pool about 20 meters above ground, the water traps radiation and keeps the rods cool. But a hydrogen explosion in 2011 weakened the building's structure. Experts say the rods must be moved to a safer place. Managers of Tokyo Electric Power Company have been preparing to start the job for the last two-and-a-half years. They planned to lift the rods out with a crane, but the building was too weak to support it. So workers built a steel frame. They will transfer the rods to containers that can seal in radiation. They will then move these to a storage facility within the compound and put them back into water. The job is far from straightforward. The workers have to maneuver the rods underwater to prevent any radiation from escaping. And they will have to cope with the high levels of radiation, up to 200 Microsieverts per hour.

Akira Ono:
The working environment here is more difficult and stressful than usual. Therefore, I want to devote every effort to safely transfer all the fuel rods.

Reporter:
TEPCO officials say it will take more than a year to remove all the rods from reactor number four. Then they will have to do it all over again at the three other reactors. They haven't said when they expect to finish. The operation will start this month. It's the latest hurdle in the long process of decommissioning the plant, a project that's expected to take up to 40 years.
 
 

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Japan: Heavy Rains Fall on Fukushima, Become Radioactive
In Japan, the weather's making an environmental disaster worse. Heavy rains from recent typhoons fell on the stricken nuclear plant at Fukushima. Some of the rainwater became radioactive. Here's Japan's public broadcaster NHK with the story.

Reporter:
Workers at Fukushima-Daiichi have been struggling for months with leaks of contaminated water. Now they're dealing with another problem -- rain. They saw a heavy downpour last week during a typhoon. And on Sunday, another storm brought more than 100 millimeters of rain. All that water built up inside barriers surrounding tanks that store contaminated water. Workers discovered it had flowed over the barriers at 11 spots. In six areas, they detected levels of radioactive strontium above the government's safety limits. The highest rating was more than 70 times the standard. Now the workers are trying to find out whether some of the water flowed through ditches and into the Pacific Ocean. The barriers are designed to contain any tainted water that leaks from the tanks. The ones that fitted with drainage pipes. Initially, whenever it rained, workers opened the pipes to discharge rainwater. But in August, they found that 300 tones of highly radioactive water had leaked from one of the tanks. It traveled through a pipe to the area beyond the barrier. Workers decided to shut off all the pipes and pump out any water that collected inside the containment area. They now check the pumped out water for radioactivity to ensure it meets government's standards. Heavy rains are making that job a lot harder. Managers plan to install more pumps around the tank to make sure they can deal with any amount of water. They say they don't want to get caught out the next time a storm hits.
 
 

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Fukushima: Four Tons of Radioactive Rainwater Leaks from Stricken Nuclear Plant
FukushimaThere's yet another problem at Japan's stricken Fukushima nuclear reactors. The operators of the reactors reported earlier this week that four tons of radioactive rainwater has leaked from the plant. Japan's public broadcaster, NHK, reported on the story.

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Reporter:
An official with plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Company says crews were pumping up pools of contaminated rain water. A tropical storm passed over the complex last month. Rain built up around tanks used to store contaminated water. The crews may have transferred it to the wrong tank leading to an overflow. Workers measured the radiation levels inside the tank after the leak. It was 13 times higher than the government safety limit for releasing tainted water into the ocean. For some reason the level of radiation has doubled since measurements taken just after the storm. Plant managers are looking into what caused the spike.

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And, Japanese and American scientists are trying to work together to find out how much radiation seeped into the Pacific Ocean since the disaster at Fukushima 31 months ago. The American side says it's found low levels of the radioactive cesium in Bluefin tuna caught off the US coast. NHK has a report.

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Reporter:
Professor Hideo Yamazaki of Kinki University has been studying marine creatures in the waters off Fukushima Prefecture.

Hideo Yamazaki:
We estimated concentration levels to be so low, they wouldn't be detectable in the US, But the fact that they found contaminated fish off the coast of the US really shocked us, even if the figures are extremely low.

Reporter:
Yamazaki says the level of contamination doesn't pose a threat to human health. But he says he wants to share his data with the US researchers to figure out how the tuna picked up the radioactive material. Yamazaki says it takes time for tuna to accumulate radioactive substances since they're at the top of the marine food chain. Tiny creatures such and plankton absorb radioactive substances first. Small fish then eat the plankton. Then big fish like tuna eat the smaller ones. Recent studies show Bluefin tuna spend their juvenile period in Japan's coastal water. The fish take one to four months to migrate across the Pacific to the US West Coast. Yamazaki says he thinks he can figure out how and where the Bluefin tuna accumulate radioactivity by studying fish on both sides of the ocean. He asked US researchers to collaborate with his team.

Hideo Yamazaki:
Japan needs to work with people from different sides to gather and assess the same kind of data. We need to provide the public with reliable information.

Reporter:
Researchers from Stanford University sent last April twenty three-gram slices of Bluefin tuna to Japan. But customs agents at Kansai International Airport stopped them. They said proper documentation was missing. But the US government does not issue such paperwork for research purposes. So the samples are still at the airport, frozen, six months on.

Hideo Yamazaki:
This is an urgent situation. We need customs officials to understand just how critical this is and facilitate the timely transportation of materials that need to be studied.

Reporter:
Scientists in the US and Japan are calling for international cooperation and flexibility, so they can better study the effects of the nuclear accident.
 
 

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Japanese Cosmetic Company Takes Heat for Skin Damage Claims
A popular Japanese cosmetic company is scrambling to save face. More than 8,000 users of Kanebo Cosmetics skin whitening creams and lotions have reported serious skin damage after using its products. Japan's public broadcaster NHK digs deeper into this scandal with this report.

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Reporter:
People have seen the ads. Products that promise to make the skin on their faces whiter. Some believe that will hide any flaws. But now they're finding out that cosmetics are not safe.

Woman 1:
I wonder if the products were thoroughly tested.

Woman 2:
I do whitening because I worry about blemishes. But when things like this happen, it makes me think twice about buying another product from the company.

Reporter:
Kanebo was founded in 1887. It grew into one of the Japan's leading cosmetic companies. In 2008, the company started selling products to whiten the skin on people's faces. Customers in 11 other countries and territories started buying them up. Then, two years ago, managers started hearing some complaints. More than six thousand customers have contacted the company since the beginning of this month. More than two thousand complained the product left their skin with blotches.

Masumi Natsusaka:
We will continue to take action until every affected customer is completely cured. It's our responsibility to know the customers' present conditions and come up with measures to deal with their problems as soon as possible.

Reporter:
Company executives said they can't confirm whether their products cause the problems. But, they're looking into an ingredient called rhododenol. Company scientists developed the substance, and got it cleared in testing required by law. The executives admit they should have taken a measure earlier to prevent any further damage. This month, they started recalling 450,000 units. They believe about 90,000 are still out there. And now they are considering offering customers some compensation to pay for any medical expenses. The case is a major blow for the people who run Kanebo. They're still trying to figure out what the impact will be but customers are already shying away from Kanebo cosmetics.

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It's been two years since Japan's triple disaster -- the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear meltdown at Fukushima, but recovery efforts are far from being over. Japanese broadcaster NHK filed this report on the slow recovery.

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Reporter:
Crews have focused their decontamination efforts based on levels of radiation. The government is responsible for cleaning up the evacuation zone around the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant. And it's subsidizing work in other areas. Government officials have allocated about 11 billion dollars. But they haven't said what the total cost might be. Experts from a science and technology institute carried out a study. They estimated cleaning up the evacuation zone alone would cost 20 billion dollars. They say, work in other areas would add up to more than 30 billion.

Junko Nakanishi:
The government should study the cost before deciding whether to complete decontamination or reallocating the money to help people rebuild their lives.

Reporter:
Nakanishi says government officials are overseeing the work without considering the expectations of residents.
 
 

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'Large Amounts of Radioactive Substances' Remain in Japan's Environment
NHK RadiationConcerns over radiation exposure and an increase in cancer rates following Japan's nuclear disaster in 2011 led to immediate evacuations of towns surrounding the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant. For the past two years residents have been closely monitored, and those efforts seem to have paid off. This week, a group of UN scientists reported that radiation leaked after the 2011 Fukushima disaster is unlikely to cause any health effects in the future. But that doesn't mean people can go home. The Japanese government says there's still a lot of contamination in the water and soil. This past week, Japan's public broadcaster, NHK, took a look at the report and what it means for local residents. The transcript of that piece is below.

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Reporter:
This year’s report was approved at a cabinet meeting on Tuesday. It prioritizes reconstruction from the March 11th quake and tsunami, and the nuclear accident they triggered. The report says large amounts of radioactive substances remain in the environment more than two years after the accident. It calls decontamination of the affected areas a pressing issue, and it admits that government efforts have so far failed to dispel fears over possible low dosage exposure.

The report stops short of discussing nuclear power generation as a way to tackle global warming. Before the 2011 accident, the government used a report to promote the use of nuclear energy.

Nobuteru Ishihara, Japanese Environment Minister:
We hope more people will consider how to hand over a truly prosperous society to future generations.

Reporter:
The report also says values appear to be changing in Japan since the disaster, and that the country should shift away from assessing wealth only through GDP figures.
 
 

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